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par Marie-Pierre Ruas - publié le

Hybrid Communities - Biosocial Approaches to Domestication and Other Trans-species Relationships
Routledge Studies in Anthropology, 2018, London, 324 pages

Charles Stépanoff and Jean-Denis Vigne, (eds.)

articles des membres de l’unité

Introduction
- Charles Stépanoff and Jean-Denis Vigne
Abstract- In the past few decades, we have seen crisis after crisis in the world of agriculture and animal farming, leading us more than ever to question the nature and meaning of the links that unite us with domestic plants and animals. Mad-cow disease, bird flu, scandals around the maltreatment of animals in industrial farming and slaughterhouses, widespread worries concerning pesticides, endocrine disruptors, GMOs : the very conditions in which we produce our food and manage live raise questions and doubts. With each new epizootic episode, the public witnesses the destruction of animal populations suspected of carrying diseases caused by the very conditions in which they are bred. In 2001, during the mad-cow-disease crisis, Claude Lévi-Strauss noticed a “diffuse feeling that our species is paying the price for having contravened the natural order”. He saw modern breeding as having reached an impasse and imagined a future where it would be abandoned : “Our former herds will be set free and become just like any other game, in a countryside returned to the wild” (Lévi-Strauss 2001, 13).

4. Wild game or farm animal ? Tracking human-pig relationship in ancient times through stable isotope analysis
- Marie Balasse, Thomas Cucchi, Allowen Evin, Adrian Bălăşescu, Delphine Frémondeau and Marie-Pierre Horard-Herbin

Abstract - Zooarchaeology documents the gradual intensification of the long-standing relationship between humans and animals, which eventually led to domestication. Research has partly focused on identifying biological markers of domestication in the archaeological record, leading also to the recognition of the complexity of the trajectories and the difficulty of establishing boundaries between wild and domestic statuses. Key to the debate is a better characterization of humans-animals relationships. Using a few case studies focused on pig domestication, this chapter describes how, in combination with osteology, the biogeochemistry of animal skeleton remains contributes to defining the cohabitation between humans and animals within the farming and domestic spheres. This includes feeding strategies and the place allocated to the animal in the human environment. These contributions are relevant in particular for highlighting incipient domestication and feralization.

7. Milk as a pivotal medium in the domestication of cattle, sheep and goats
- Mélanie Roffet-Salque, Rosalind E. Gillis, Richard P. Evershed and Jean-Denis Vigne

Abstract - The ability to lactate connects us with all mammals big and small ; indeed, it was the key characteristic used by Linnaeus to determine the taxonomic class Mammalia. The milk of domesticated animals is a rich resource that can be transformed by humans into a myriad of dairy products with long and short shelf-lives. Archaeozoological evidence suggests that perhaps milk was a principal catalyst in the domestication of cattle, sheep and goats starting from 10.5 kyBP. Direct evidence for the processing of milk is found in the first ceramic vessels excavated at early farming communities in Near East and Europe dating from 9 kyBP indicating that human populations largely intolerant to lactose, the main sugar in milk, were processing milk in ceramic vessels. Innovation in techniques to process milk through cooking and other methods, such as fermentation, to enable milk consumption without adverse side effects, appears to have been a component of the European Neolithic package. For the pioneer farmers of Europe, milk would have offered a renewable food resource as husbandry practices where meat is secondary to milk production ensure the growth of the herd and are more sustainable. The consumption and production of milk has led to significant changes in the genetic structures of humans and dairy species. Here we discuss the role of milk played in the domestication of cattle, sheep and goats, the spread of the Neolithic way of life into Europe and its lasting effect on food culture and human and animal genetics.

Voir en ligne : Hybrid Communities Biosocial Approaches to Domestication and Other Trans-species Relationships